Ocean liner advertising took a variety of forms. Most promotional literature was strictly utilitarian and limited to announcements of routes and schedules  and to deck plans [40, 63-67]. Almost all illustrations of ships were iconic views in which the ocean liner crowns an evolutionary line of ships , towers over all contemporary craft [51, 58], or is eagerly awaited by expectant passengers or wistful stay-at-homes [46, 49-50].
Pictorial views such as that of Fabre Line’s Sant’Anna in midocean  did little to allay prospective passengers’ misgivings about the perils and uncertainties ocean travel. Far more inviting were images that ignored the sea altogether to focus on destinations [52-54] or that present-ed the ship as an abstraction .